Commissioned by the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the report Lost Opportunities: The Reality of Latinos in the U.S. Criminal Justice System also found that Hispanics represented 13 percent of the U.S. population in 2000, but accounted for 31 percent of those incarcerated in the federal criminal justice system. Hispanics have one chance in six of being confined in prison during their lifetimes, the authors found.
"It is apparent that the criminal justice system in this country is neither fair nor just for Hispanics," said Janet Murguia, NCLR's executive director and chief operating officer. "Recent polls show that Latinos care very much about protecting public safety and fighting crime, but they recognize that being tough on crime is not always the same as being smart on crime. Our community is losing a whole generation of people, and that is a national tragedy."
Lost Opportunities, co-authored by NCLR, the Center for Youth Policy Research (CYPR), and Michigan State University's Office of University Outreach & Engagement, is the first comprehensive examination of Hispanics in every facet of the criminal justice system from arrest to sentencing, including juvenile justice. The analysis is based on data from government sources, including the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau.
Lost Opportunities offers policy recommendations including community-based strategies for alternatives to incarceration for addressing criminal justice issues that affect Latinos and which provide models for states to replicate.
"This study conclusively documents the criminal justice system's discriminatory practices against the nation's largest and fastest-growing minority population," said Nancy Walker, president and senior research fellow of CYPR and MSU adjunct professor, and an author of the report. "This indictment of the system comes from the government's own statistics."
Inequities Hispanics ExperienceIn Lost Opportunities, the authors found that the inequities that Hispanics experience in the criminal justice system stem from a variety of factors:
- Policy initiatives, such as "mandatory minimum" sentencing, the "war on drugs," and the "war on crime," that have caused incarceration rates for low-level drug offenses and immigration violations to skyrocket;
- Systemic discriminatory practices in law enforcement and court proceedings such as over-criminalizing certain behaviors and employing personnel who are, often, neither bilingual nor culturally competent that lead to higher arrest and incarceration rates for Hispanics;
- Even damaging media portrayals that create negative public perceptions and prejudices of Hispanics in general.
Other Key FindingsOther key findings about the disparate treatment that Hispanics receive include: Hispanics experience discrimination during arrest, prosecution and sentencing, and are more likely to be incarcerated than whites charged with the same offenses. Problems at the arrest stage include racial profiling and targeting poorer, "high crime" neighborhoods, which impacts people of color. Hispanics are disproportionately represented by publicly appointed legal counsel, who are overworked and underpaid. Of those defendants found guilty in large state courts from 1994 to 1998, 71 percent represented by public counsel were sentenced to incarceration, as compared to 54 percent of defendants with private attorneys.
Hispanics are disproportionately charged with nonviolent, low-level drug offenses. Although federal health statistics show that per capita drug use rates between whites and minorities are remarkably similar, Hispanics were arrested by the Drug Enforcement Agency in 2001 at a rate nearly three times their proportion in the general population, and they accounted for nearly half (43 percent) of the individuals convicted of drug offenses in 2000.
Latinos constitute the vast majority of those arrested for immigration violations. Arrests for immigration offenses increased 610 percent over 10 years from 1,728 in 1990 to 12,266 in 2000. A growing list of more than 50 crimes including offenses considered misdemeanors under state law, such as shoplifting or fighting at school can trigger deportation.
Community-based alternatives to incarceration for nonviolent, low-level offenders would better protect public safety, rehabilitate offenders, reduce crime, and save money. The most expensive and most common option in the criminal justice system for low-level, nonviolent drug offenders is to incarcerate them at an average annual cost of about $23,500.
Key findings from Lost Opportunities are available online.