Some cases end quickly with a guilty plea and paying a fine, while others can go on for decades through the appeals process.
A criminal case begins when you are arrested for a crime. Under what circumstances can you be arrested? What constitutes being "under arrest?"
After you are arrested you are then processed into police custody. Your fingerprints and photo are taken during the booking process and you are placed in a cell.
Bail or Bond
The first thing you want to know after being placed in jail is how much it's going to cost to get out. How is your bail amount set? What if you don't have the money?
Usually, your first appearance in court after you have been arrested is a hearing called the arraignment. Depending on your crime, you may have to wait until the arraignment to have your bail set.
With the criminal court system overwhelmed with cases, only 10 percent of cases go to trial. Most of them are resolved during a process known as plea bargaining. But you have to have something with which to bargain.
At the preliminary hearing, the prosecutor tries to convince the judge there is enough evidence to show that a crime was committed and you probably committed it. Some states use a grand jury system instead of preliminary hearings.
Your attorney has the opportunity to exclude some of the evidence against you and try to establish some of the ground rules for your trial by making pre-trial motions. Ruling made during this stage of the case can also be issues for appealing the case later.
If you are truly innocent or if you are not satisfied with any plea deals offered to you, you have the option to allow a jury to decide your fate. The trial itself usually has six important stages before a verdict is reached.
If you plead guilty or you were found guilty by a jury, you will be sentenced for your crime. But there are many factors that can affect whether you get a minimum sentence or the maximum.
If you think a legal error caused you to be convicted and sentence unfairly, you have the ability to appeal to a higher court. Successful appeals are very rare, however, and usually make headline when they happen.
In the United States everyone accused of a crime is assumed innocent until proven guilty in a court of law and has the right to a fair trial, even if they cannot afford to hire their own attorney. The criminal justice system is there to protect the innocent and seek the truth.